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The Boiler Trio - Morpholine, Hydrazine, Carbohydrazide

Boilers suffer from dissolved gases in the feed water. Since water is the easiest, cheapest and powerful means to generate and re-generate energy, most factory processes opt for water for their power source. Water, being a universal solvent has an inherited tendency to react with minerals that hamper boiler efficiency. Impurities such as salts of sodium, calcium, industrial wastes, sediment, microbes present in the feed water cause difficulties in normal boiler operations.


For a boiler system to optimally perform downstream and to meet the industrial requirements, conventional handling of operational parameters and feed water should always be taken into consideration.



Why Boiler Feed Water Treatment?


Presence of suspended solids, dirt, fouling agents get deposited in the RO membranes and equipment. Processes like Clarification, Filtration and Micro-filtration can remove these wastes before they make way inside the boilers.


Formation of scales and sludge due to accumulation of inorganic salts of calcium, sodium, magnesium and sometimes even silicates, are already present in the feed water. These scales are hard and corrode metal if not checked timely. Chemical treatment with antiscalant, anti-fouling agents reduce the concentration levels of these inorganic materials, prolonging the equipment life.


Prevention of oxidation induced corrosion in the boiler systems. The feed water consists of dissolved oxygen that react with metal ions, initiating corrosive chain reaction and untimely degradation of the metal. Even a little trace of dissolved oxygen in boiler water is capable of causing severe pitting. Hence, the need to reduce dissolved oxygen becomes a necessity.


Oxygen scavengers like Carbohydrazide or Hydrazine Hydrate can be injected in the feed water line which consume oxygen to become non-reactive components and settle down.

Hydrazine an inorganic compound, reacts with Oxygen to produce non-corrosive and inert Nitrogen and Water, having no effects on boiler or turbine operations. [N2H4 + O2 -> N2 + 2H2O]

Even if dosed higher, the residual when heated to 200°C in the boiler, becomes ammonia which is non-acidic in nature and in turn increases the pH level of the water, reducing chances of acidic corrosion.


Another option Carbohydrazide can also be opted for use in boiler feed line. It indirectly reacts with water to form hydrazine and carbon dioxide. Then the hydrazine reacts with oxygen to form non-corrosive nitrogen and water, removing even the last trace of DO throughout the process.


(N2H3 )2CO + H2O -> 2N2H4 + CO2

2N2H4 + 2O2 -> 4H2O + 2N2


The advantages are almost same for both generic chemicals except for the fact that Carbohydrazide is non-carcinogenic

Pitting corrosion or Oxygen pitting & scale degrades the pipeline material and boiler tubes, impeding with conduction, working of pressure reducing valves & trap mechanism.


Talking about pH control or in other words to maintain the alkalinity of the feed water as acidic feed water would corrode the metallic tubes, Morpholine is a volatile organic chemical which when injected in feed water, increases pH.

The increased pH ensures decrease in acidity, reducing the chances of pitting corrosion. It can be used on all types of boilers irrespective of its type, size and pressure.


Morpholine is chosen for its volatility which is about as same as water so that when its injected, gets distributed evenly in water. Also, its pH controlling ability gets distributed throughout the water plant and provides protection to inner surface of metal from corrosion. Moreover, if the feed water is free of oxygen, it decomposes reasonably slowly even if the temperature and pressure in the water system is high.


Chemtex Speciality Limited is an esteemed manufacturer of Boiler Water Chemicals under the trade name “ALSTHERM” based on various generic chemicals like Morpholine, Carbohydrazide, Hydrazine and others, hugely acknowledged by renowned industries across the country and overseas.


Enquire today at waterchemicalsindia@gmail.com

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